income statement

Use this example income statement template as a guide to help you create an in-depth financial statement. An income statement, also known as a profit and loss statement, shows revenue and expense over a period of one year. Along with the balance sheet and the cash flow statement, the income statement is one of the three basic financial statements. Use this accessible income statement template to create a professional income statement. Multi-step income statements separate operational revenues and expenses from non-operating ones. They’re a little more complicated but can be useful to get a better picture of how core business activities are driving profits.

income statement

If your business owes someone money, it probably has to make monthly interest payments. Your interest expenses are the total interest payments your business made to its creditors for the period covered by the income statement. This type of analysis makes it simple to compare financial statements across periods and industries, and between companies, because you can see relative proportions. It also helps you analyze whether performance metrics are improving. An income statement is one of the most common, and critical, of the financial statements you’re likely to encounter. Indiana University also accounts for encumbrances which are ear-marked funds set aside to cover future anticipated expenses.

What is a single-step income statement?

Some income statements detail both interest earned and interest paid, while others show only the total. Knowing whether you have a net profit or loss determines the changes you need to make in your business. When you have a net loss, work on cutting back expenses and increasing sales. Unlike net profit (the bottom line of the P&L), gross profit shows you your company’s profit before subtracting expenses. If you have a healthy gross profit and a significantly lower net profit, you can make expense-cutting decisions. This statement records revenues, expenses, gains, and losses according to this standard format. Suppose XYZ is a US-based company, and a multiple-step income statement is followed here.

The income statement may have minor variations between different companies, as expenses and income will be dependent on the type of operations or business conducted. However, there are several generic line items that are commonly seen in any income statement.

Items and disclosures

An income statement should be used in conjunction with the other two financial statements. It provides insights into a company’s overall profitability and helps investors evaluate a company’s financial performance. With the income statement detailing the categories of revenues and expenses of a company, management is able to see how each department of a company is performing. A single-step income statement is useful when your business does not have complex operations or only needs a simple statement that could report the net income of a business. Reports of “Income,” “Revenues,” and “Expenses” do not necessarily represent real cash inflows or outflows. Not all of these signal the presence of cash flow for the following reason.

Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.

Revenue (income)

Common size income statements include an additional column of data summarizing each line item as a percentage of your total revenue. Financial analysis of an income statement can reveal that the costs of goods sold are falling, or that sales have been improving, while return on equity is rising. Income statements are also carefully reviewed when a business wants to cut spending or determine strategies for growth.

The purpose of income statements is to show the profitability of your business. Use the P&L to see whether you have a net income (yay!) or loss for the time period on the last line of your income statement.


The portion of profit or loss for the period, net of income taxes, which is attributable to the parent. The financial statement provides a comparative analysis of what matters. Operating Expenses Gives Operating IncomeOperating Income, also known as EBIT or Recurring Profit, is an important yardstick of profit measurement and reflects the operating performance of the business. It doesn’t take into consideration non-operating gains or losses suffered by businesses, the impact of financial leverage, and tax factors. It is calculated as the difference between Gross Profit and Operating Expenses of the business. It is derived from the difference between gross profit and total operating expenses. Expenses, commonly referred to as operating expenses, are costs the company incurs related to sales.

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